Definition of Anemia
Anemia is a condition in which the body lacks red blood cells, from a normal amount. This condition can result in the body’s organs not getting enough oxygen. So that some sufferers will easily get tired and look pale. Anemia can occur when there is not enough hemoglobin in the red blood cells, as protein rich in iron can give blood its red color.
This protein can help oxygen carried by red blood cells, from the lungs to the rest of the body. Lack of red blood cells can occur temporarily, even in the long term. The severity of this condition can range from mild to severe.
Adults can be said to have anemia if the hemoglobin level is below 14 g / dl for men. In adult women, a hemoglobin level below 12 g / dl is said to have anemia. To make efforts to overcome it, depending on the factors that cause it. Starting from taking blood or iron supplements, blood transfusions, and ending in surgery.
What causes this condition to occur?
This condition can occur when the body is deficient in red blood cells. This can cause the body to experience hypoxemia. Hypoxemia is a condition in which the body lacks oxygen and cannot function normally. In general, anemia can be caused by the following conditions:
- Less red blood cell production
- The body loses blood excessively
- Too quickly red blood cells are destroyed
Types of Anemia
There are several types of deficiencies in red blood cells that can attack every sufferer. The following are common types and based on their causes. What are the types of anemia that we must know? Let’s look at the following explanation.
Anemia due to iron deficiency
Lack of iron can cause the body to be unable to produce hemoglobin (Hb). This condition can occur due to insufficient intake of iron in food. In addition, this condition can occur due to the inability of the body to absorb iron, which is caused by celiac disease.
Consuming a diet rich in iron, in severe cases blood transfusions are required.
Anemia during pregnancy
When pregnant, low hemoglobin values are normal. However, the need for hemoglobin will increase when pregnant. So, the body will need more hemoglobin-forming substances, such as iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid. If the third intake is lacking, anemia that occurs can harm the mother and the fetus she is carrying.
Take iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid supplements according to the doctor’s dose.
Anemia due to bleeding
Heavy bleeding can cause anemia. This condition can occur slowly over a long time or it can even happen suddenly. The causes include injuries, menstrual disorders, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, stomach ulcers, and even drug side effects.
To stop bleeding, the doctor will give iron supplements and blood transfusions.
This type of anemia can occur when there is damage to the bone marrow, this makes the body unable to produce red blood cells optimally. This condition is triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, exposure to toxic substances, and side effects of certain drugs.
Performing a blood transfusion, or a bone marrow transplant, is done when the bone marrow is unable to produce red blood cells.
This condition can occur when the destruction of red blood cells will be faster than their formation. This type of anemia can be passed on from parents or family. It can also occur from birth that is caused by blood cancer, viral infections, bacterial infections and anti-malarial drugs.
Discontinuation of drugs that trigger this type of anemia. Treating infection, or even removing lymph.
Anemia due to chronic disease
Some types of diseases can affect the formation of red blood cells, especially if they last for a long time. Like a disease crohn, cancer, kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and HIV / AIDS.
Treat the type of disease on which this condition is based.
Sickle cell anemia
Sickle cell anemia that occurs is the result of a mutation or genetic change in hemoglobin. This condition causes the hemoglobin to become sticky and does not have a normal shape like a crescent moon. If parents have the same genetic mutation, it is possible that the offspring can develop this condition as well.
This type of condition can be treated by taking iron and folic acid supplements.
Symptoms of anemia
This disease experienced can provide several symptoms for the sufferer. The symptoms that appear will vary from person to person, depending on the cause. In general, the symptoms that can appear include the following.
- The body gets tired and weak quickly
- Dizziness and headaches
- The skin will look pale and yellow
- Irregular heartbeat
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Cold hands and feet
The symptoms above are often not realized by the sufferer. This is because the symptoms that appear are very similar to the usual symptoms of dizziness. However, these symptoms will be more pronounced if the anemia condition gets worse.
Also Read: Anemia in Pregnant Women
Complications that can occur
If this condition is left without proper treatment and treatment, there will be a risk of complications. Complications that occur can be serious, including the following.
- It is difficult to do activities because the body is tired
- Heart problems, such as disturbances in heart rhythm and even heart failure
- The presence of disorders in the lungs, for example pulmonary hypertension
- Complications in pregnancy such as preterm birth, and babies born with low birth weight.
- The body is susceptible to other infections.
Overcome Anemia in the following ways!
Types of anemia during pregnancy and anemia caused by iron deficiency can be treated with a diet rich in nutrients. As:
- Consume foods rich in iron and folic acid. This content can be found in red meat, cereals, n
uts, bread, dark green leafy vegetables and fruits.
- Consume foods rich in Vitamin B12. This content can be found in milk, soy-based foods such as tofu and tempeh.
- Consume fruits that are rich in Vitamin C. Vitamin C can be found in oranges, melons, strawberries and tomatoes.
Previously, the doctor will perform several blood tests and tests. Diagnosis can be made by means of a blood test. This is done to find out the common types of anemia which consist of:
- Levels of iron, vitamin B12, vitamins, minerals and folic acid.
- The number of red blood cells and hemoglobin levels in the body
- Reticulocyte count.
When to see a doctor
You should check with your doctor if your symptoms get worse. If you suffer from anemia that needs treatment and treatment in the long term and blood transfusions. You need regular control with your doctor to monitor the progress of this condition. For pregnant women, a decrease in hemoglobin levels is a normal thing to happen.
To maintain the health of the mother and the fetus, it is routine pregnancy check-ups to an obstetrician. The obstetrician will provide blood booster supplements, to prevent anemia from occurring during pregnancy.
Hope it is useful.