The main cause of cervical cancer is HPV, which is a virus that persists and infects the cervix. Although some who are infected with HPV will heal by itself due to immunity, while in others it will persist and increase the risk of cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer consists of several types. The most common type is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) which accounts for 80-85% of all cervical cancers. The main cause is the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). While some other types of cervical cancer are adenocarcinoma, adenosquamos, small cell carcinoma, melanoma and lymphoma. Some types of cervical cancer are rare cervical cancers that are not related to the Human Papilloma Virus.
Symptoms of cervical cancer at an early stage it does not cause symptoms. It’s just that some conditions in which women experience changes such as experiencing bleeding, feeling back pain outside of menstruation, then pain when urinating is marked by cloudy urine.
Furthermore, with constipation and feeling bloated on an empty stomach. Then women who have HPV infection will experience pain during intercourse. The most common sign is experiencing abnormal vaginal discharge. Even some conditions such as swelling of the feet and leakage of urine should be suspected as a sign of cervical cancer.
Health checks related to cervical cancer can be done, one of which is by doing a pap smear to determine the condition of cervical cells. This condition can also be an early prevention in cervical cancer. If the Pap smear results are found to be abnormal, early examination and treatment will help reduce the risk of cervical cancer.
Pap smear is able to identify carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the cervix. It is recommended that women have a pap smear at least once a year from the start of sexual intercourse. CIN does not grow in women who already have HPV infection and also not all women have cervical cancer CIN. This is because the body’s immune system is able to cure HPV infection.
Cervical Cancer Stage 2
At the stage of cervical cancer is classified by the stage in the cancer. This can help with the prospects for recovery and the type of treatment performed. The following are the stages of the cancer:
1. Stage 1
Stage 1 or it is also called the precancerous stage. In the precancerous stage it can be treated with hysteroctomy even if the patient wants to have children it can be done with the cone biopsy method. Rarely is it found at the precancerous stage unless the woman carries out screening and prevention so that it cannot spread to wider cancer cells and endanger health.
2. Stage 2
Next is the early stage cervical cancer, namely stage 1 and 2. Where the tumor size is less than 4 cm which is done with hysterectomo radicals or by doing radiotherapy. Meanwhile, if the size of the cancer exceeds 4 cm, it is carried out with chemotherapy and radiotherapy based on hysterectomy, cisplatin or also based on cisplatin and hysteroctomy.
3. Stage 3 and 4
It is an advanced stage where it can be treated using chemotherapy and radiotherapy with cisplatin. Even at an advanced stage doctors will consider using a combination of treatment with chemotherapy and oral drugs. Whereas the impossible cure is to remove or destroy cancer cells. This is commonly done when treatment is palliative to reduce symptoms.
Cervical Cancer Treatment Stage 2
In stage 1, cervical cancer sufferers can be given drugs through a conservative surgical procedure which the woman wants to take care of female fertility. While in other conditions, it can be done by removing all cervical organs and uterus. If after surgery, it is recommended to wait at least one vulnerable year for a pregnancy program. The possibility that can occur in stage 1 is the spread of cancer to the lymph nodes in the late stages of stage 1. Even surgery is more likely to remove lymph nodes from the uterus.
Recurrence of cancer in the remaining cervix is very rare, however, if the cancer is completely removed by trachelectomy, however prevention is highly recommended for further examination and screening for pap smears. In early stage 2 cancer symptoms can be treated with a procedure to remove the entire uterus. Whereas at an advanced stage, namely stage 2B to stage 4B using chemoradiation therapy.
Treatment for cervical cancer, the 5-year safety rate for early-stage cervical cancer, is 92%. Whereas for stage 1 cervical cancer, it is 80-90% while 50-65% in stage 2 cancer. In patients with stage 3 cervical cancer, only 25-35 occur. Whereas at stage 4 it was 15%. That is why it is highly recommended for screening and early detection to help the healing process of cervical cancer sufferers.
Thus cervical cancer is a type of cancer that threatens women second only to breast cancer. The main cause of cervical cancer is a virus, an intermediary for the spread of the virus can be from sexual intercourse with multiple partners. In addition, men can be a medium for transferring the virus from sufferers to other women through intimate relationships.
Cervical cancer is distinguished by treatment and spread, namely early stage, advanced stage and late stage. In the early stages of cancer is rarely found, while at advanced tadium, namely stage 2 and stage 3, generally women with cervical cancer experience several complaints. Complaints experienced by women who have cervical cancer are indeed difficult to distinguish from symptoms of diseases related to reproduction.
Further examination if complaints are found in women related to reproductive organs is indeed important. Especially for cervical cancer, the earlier it is found, the prevention can be done. Examination can be done in various ways, one of which is by using a pap smear to determine the condition of the cervix. If HPV infection is found, it can be checked more frequently so that it helps in treatment.
In stage 2, if a woman with cervical cancer is found at stage 2, several actions can be taken. One of them is by performing surgery, removing cancer cells that are in the cervix, if they are in stage 2B or more than that stage, chemotherapy can even be done with a combination of oral treatment and chemotherapy. Support from the environment is needed to make women with cervical cancer able to pass the treatment given by medical experts to help reduce the spread of cancer cells in the cervix.