Vaccines or immunizations given to children are mandatory. It aims to protect against certain diseases. Regarding the matter of protecting, of course children are one of our priorities. Because no mother wants her child to be sick, therefore, giving immunization in children very important to do.
But unfortunately, it turns out that there are still many children today who do not receive immunizations because of their parents’ ignorance. As parents we must know the types of vaccines and the benefits of giving them. The immunizations given have a set schedule.
Complete basic immunization must be fulfilled and carried out for newborns up to 1 year old. The immunization given aims to increase immunity against a dangerous disease, of course in early childhood. Advanced immunization given when the child is 1-4 years old. The immunization aims to extend the period of basic immunization immunity.
The follow-up immunization period also serves to complement the previously incomplete immunizations. Immunizations will be repeated in children aged 5-12 years and in adolescents aged 13-18 years.
What types of immunizations in children should be done?
As parents we must pay attention to the growth and development of their children. One of them is by immunizing children according to age. So what are the types of immunizations in these children, let’s look at the following explanation.
Also Read: Overcoming Heat In Babies After Immunization
Hepatitis B (HB0) Immunization
The first hepatitis B vaccine is given within 12 hours after the baby is born. Before giving this vaccine, an injection of vitamin K1 was given at least 30 minutes before hepatitis B was given. Hepatitis B vaccine will be given again if the child is 2,3 and 4 years old which generally will be combined with DPT and Hib immunization.
If the baby has not received hepatitis B immunization at birth, he can get serial immunization at any time during his visit. This immunization can be done without having to check the anti heppatitis B level first.
Polio immunization must be given to children to prevent paralysis caused by the wild polio virus. Wild polio is capable of attacking nerve cells in the spinal cord. The virus is very dangerous, because it can attack a child’s brain, causing paralysis and even death.
Polio immunization is given by placing it in the mouth of the baby at birth, at the age of 2,3,4,6 and 18 months or according to the recommended government program. This vaccine is also called OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine). Apart from being in the form of drops, this vaccine is available in an injectable form called IPV. IPV vaccine is given to children aged 2,4,6,18 months and to children aged 6-8 years.
If the polio vaccine is late, there is no need to start over. Keep going and complete other immunizations on schedule. Does not see any interval and length of delay from the previous giving.
BCG immunization is carried out by injection in the skin of the right upper arm. Given when the baby is 1-2 months old. BCG immunization serves to prevent the occurrence of severe tuberculosis (TB) in the lungs, lymph nodes, brain and bones which can cause severe and long enough pain, disability and even death.
BCG immunization will cause red bumps due to the injection marks which then burst. From the injection site will drain pus. But you don’t need to worry as long as your baby doesn’t show symptoms such as fever and pain. This is a natural thing to happen.
DPT immunization functions to prevent 3 diseases at once, namely diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. The vaccine is given by injection in the baby’s thigh at the age of 2 months and continued at the age of 3-4 months, 4-6 months and 18-24 months.
If DPT immunization is given too late, no matter how long it is late, do not repeat it from the beginning. Continue to immunize according to schedule. If the child has never received basic immunization at the age <12 months, you should do basic immunization both in quantity and interval.
If the 4th DPT is given before the 4th year, the 5th DPT is at least 6 months afterwards. On the other hand, if the DPT 4 is given after 4 years, the 5th gift is no longer needed.
Hib and Pneumococcal Immunization
Hib and pneumococcal vaccines function to prevent attacks from Hib and pneumococcal germs, which can cause inflammation of the lungs, ears and brain. This incident can cause disability and even death. This vaccine is injected into children aged 2,4,6 and 15 months.
Usually, the Hib vaccine is combined with the DPT vaccine. Unlike the pneumococcal vaccine that is given separately. Inflammation that occurs in the lungs, brain due to pneumococcal bacteria cannot be prevented by the Hib-DPT vaccine. And vice versa. Because Hib and Pneumococcal immunizations are equally important immunizations.
The rotavirus vaccine is given by slowly dropping it into the mouths of babies aged 2,4 and 6 months. The aim of this vaccine is to prevent diseases such as severe diarrhea caused by rotavirus.
If this happens it can cause the baby to vomit and have severe diarrhea, lack of fluids or dehydration, acid-base disorders and even lead to death.
Influenza immunization aims to prevent influenza virus attacks. The influenza virus causes sufferers to experience high fever, cough, runny nose, shortness of breath, and even inflammation of the lungs which causes death. This vaccine is given from the age of 6.7 months. Then it is given a birthday every year to toddlers, school age, adolescents, adults, and the elderly.
The measles or MR vaccine is injected at the age of 9 months, 18 months and pre-school or elementary school grade 1. This vaccine aims to prevent measles and rubella. The measles virus can cause high fever, cough, runny nose, shortness of breath, pneumonia, diarrhea, inflammation of the brain, and even death.
While the rubella virus is able to attack the fetus which results in miscarriage, the baby will be blind, the baby will experience deafness, mental retardation, and leakage in the heart.
MMR immunization is carried out to prevent attacks from the MMR virus. The virus is capable of causing mumps in children, inflammation of the testicles, sterility, measles, and rubella. This vaccine is given by injection at the age of 15-18 months at least 6 month intervals. This vaccine is again given to children before entering SD or grade 1.
If a repeat immunization or booster has not been given after 6 years of age, give measles vaccine or MMR at any time. Because in general, measles immunization is given twice or MMR twice.
Varicella or Chickenpox Immunization
The chickenpox vaccine is given by injection at the age of 1 year. This vaccine serves to prevent chickenpox which damages the skin, eyes and can even attack the fetus in the womb.
HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) immunization
HPV immunization aims to prevent cervical cancer. This vaccine is given by injection 3 times in adolescent girls aged 10 years, and then continued 1,2,6 months later.
Of the types of immunizations that have been described, there are immunizations that must be given. Among them are Hepatitis B, Polio, BCG, DPT-Hib, MR, DT and TD immunization. All types of basic immunization are mandatory. This type of vaccine has been subsidized by the government so you can do it for free at your nearest posyandu.
Meanwhile, recommended immunizations such as Rotavirus, Influenza, and HPV immunization are immunizations that have not been subsidized by the government. Even though it is only immunization, it does not mean that immunization is not important. The vaccines recommended are just as important as the mandatory basic vaccines. So don’t forget to complete immunizations for children.
Hope it is useful!