Currently, the phenomenon of early pregnancy is very common, which increases the mortality rate for infants and mothers under 18 years of age. The reason is, a young teenager is more at risk of dying during the pregnancy and childbirth process than women aged 20 years and over.
Early childhood marriage is currently triggered by various things and is a proof of the lack of public awareness and knowledge of this. Of course, early marriage causes early pregnancy rates to increase. There are several factors that cause early pregnancy including the lack of biological knowledge about the risks of early pregnancy, both children and parents, due to free sex, and so on. Pregnancy Early age will have an impact on changes in a woman’s body such as the pelvis and uterus, which of course are not medically ready to be fertilized.
Factors that cause early pregnancy
Of course, there are several things that support this problem, both external factors and external factors. Likewise with the factors that cause early pregnancy. These factors are very possible causes of early pregnancy. The following factors can be said to be the factors that contribute to early pregnancy:
- Lack of moral and religious education
- Traditions or customs of an area that are very supportive of early marriage
- Lack of parental attention
- Lack of information regarding reproductive health and health
- Don’t want to use contraception
- Low formal and informal education
- Promiscuity and free sex
- The influence of alcohol and drugs
- Domestic violence
There are also several factors according to WHO that cause early pregnancy, as follows:
- Poverty factor
The poverty factor in developing countries makes it possible to support early pregnancy. Poor families certainly have the opportunity to get married at a young age due to lack of income and daily living expenses. This condition requires a teenager to marry at a young age so that the burden on parents is lighter.
- Association and free sex
Apart from the poverty factor, this factor greatly triggers early pregnancy outside of marriage. Social habits that have no restrictions at all allow teenagers to have free sex. Especially if under the influence of alcohol and illegal drugs. Teenage age is very vulnerable to bad influences from outside, especially the lack of strong moral education and religious principles.
- Socio-Cultural Factors
In general, the normal age for marriage is 18 years. At this age the uterus and body of a woman are ready to reproduce. In fact in Indonesia, the legal age for marriage in accordance with law number 1 of 1974 concerning marriage article 7 is 16 years for women and 19 years for men. If you look at that age range, of course, 16 years of age can be said to be too early to get married.
Both formal education and informal education greatly influence the causes of early pregnancy. Lack of moral and religious education from parents is a factor in the occurrence of early marriage. This factor is also due to the lack of education in schools regarding information about reproductive problems and the consequences of promiscuity.
- Sexual harassment
This factor is somewhat rough, but it is one of the causes of early pregnancy. Sexual harassment such as rape is not only traumatic for the victim, but also leaves a mark on the victim, namely pregnancy. For victims of sexual harassment, this may be a very sad thing to accept that fact. See also: Beware of Diseases in Women Who Are Obstructing Pregnancy
Early pregnancy risk
Of course, early pregnancy poses a very serious risk for the mother. Because, emotionally unstable early childhood pregnant women and easily tense. Birth defects can occur while in the womb, because of the feeling of rejection when the mother carries the fetus.
The risks that arise, both social and health factors, greatly impact the risk of early pregnancy. Here are some of the risks and impacts of early pregnancy according to health factors:
- Death of mother and baby
The first risk that is considered very high is the death of pregnant women at an early age. This risk is generally caused by a lot of infection and bleeding during the delivery process. In addition, early pregnancy is very susceptible to miscarriage.
- Easily Infected
Early pregnancy, of course, is very easy to be infected by various viruses caused by poor nutrition, excessive stress and low economic levels. Virus disease can easily infect pregnant women at an early age because the body’s immune condition is not yet strong during pregnancy. So that early age pregnant women often experience illness.
- Pregnancy poisoning (gestosis)
The condition of the reproductive organs that are not ready and the uterus that is not ready to be fertilized is a factor in the occurrence of pregnancy poisoning (gestosis). Poisoning in young pregnant women takes the form of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. Both types of toxins must be considered seriously because they will cause the risk of death in pregnant women at an early age.
- Pregnancy Anemia
The following risks to pregnant women are considered internal factors. Anemia in pregnant women at an early age is caused by a lack of sufficient knowledge of nutrition and nutrition problems that are needed by the body. Of course, during pregnancy, a woman’s body needs adequate nutrition because the remaining food eaten by pregnant women will be passed on to the fetus to support growth. If you are deficient in iron, sooner or later your body will often feel weak and this factor triggers pregnant women to lose red blood cells. Of course, this condition will have fatal consequences for the mother and the fetus.
- Premature labor or birth defects in babies
The risk of preterm labor or congenital disorders is undesirable for pregnant women. The reason is, babies born prematurely will have congenital abnormalities in both the development and growth of the baby. Abnormalities in babies born prematurely generally have low birth weight (LBW), congenital defects and delayed growth and development. Mothers at an early age usually lack knowledge of the nutrients and nutrients the body needs. Some even take medicines that are not according to the prescription of a midwife or doctor.
- Heavy bleeding
Early pregnancy ranges from bleeding which is caused by the uterine muscles being too fat during the evolutionary process. Bleeding can also be caused by a blood clot that remains in the uterus (lining of the stocele). The process of blood clotting and being influenced by a tear in the birth canal is a factor in the occurrence of bleeding in early pregnant women.
- Long and difficult labor
Early pregnancy certainly affects th
e length and difficulty of the birth process. This is generally caused by abnormalities in the location of the fetus, pushing strength and pelvic abnormalities that are not ready for labor.
- Isolation in society
Usually a teenage mother who becomes pregnant at an early age outside of marriage will experience isolation from society. So this will cause a sense of trauma and feel excluded from the family and society. It will be difficult to have social relations in the community.
Early Childhood Pregnancy Prevention
Preventing early pregnancy from occurring is the task of every level of society. Both internal factors and external factors at the community level.
Internal factors start from the family environment which is the beginning of the character formation of a child. Of course, internal factors greatly affect a child’s association. Lack of moral and religious education in the family participates in the character building process in children. The religious principles applied by parents to their children are a determining factor for children’s interactions out there. A strong moral education and religious principles will produce a child who, if he is a teenager, will have strong principles. Also read: Depression and Pregnant Women
Second, external factors are very vulnerable to shaping behavior in children. A good environmental condition will form a good person’s personality, on the other hand, a bad environment is very influential on the formation of a bad personality too unless someone has very strong moral and religious principles.
This promiscuity that is rife in society is of course a big role in the cause of early pregnancy. Of course, it is our duty to combat and prevent early marriage and even early pregnancy.
various ways we can do to prevent early pregnancy. However, the absence of cooperation in the community and support from the government makes it difficult to prevent early pregnancy. Here are some ways we can do to prevent early pregnancy, including:
- Cultivating moral education
This moral education can be instilled in both the family, school and community environment. This education concerns character and religion education which go hand in hand in shaping children’s character. Teaching morals to children not to get along as freely as possible which can lead to things that are not desirable. The role of parents in paying attention to children’s relationships is a major factor in preventing early pregnancy.
- Changing community traditions
At this point, early pregnancy can be caused by a community tradition that has been molded from generation to generation, namely early marriage. The reason is, this tradition allows teenagers to marry even at a young age. Because it sees that women will only take care of the house and children without any other role. This tradition requires adolescents, who may be considered still having education, to marry young first. Changing this tradition is a must for all of us.
- Use of contraception
If you are married at an early age and have not been blessed with a child. So the use of contraception is very useful. Delaying pregnancy until it is ripe is an excellent way to prevent early pregnancy.
Thus the things about early pregnancy starting from the causes, risks and prevention factors that can be done. We must prevent early marriage, of course, to prevent early pregnancy. It would be better if you postpone the wedding so that everything is properly organized both mentally and materially. Hopefully the exposure we describe above provides the best way for all of us to prevent early pregnancy. Hopefully useful!