Over time with scientific developments in the field of medical and molecular biology, medical evidence shows that the RDA is not sufficient to maintain optimal body function and prevent or assist in the management of chronic diseases. Medical evidence shows that the root of many chronic diseases is oxidative stress caused by excess free radicals in the body.
The use of nutrients at optimal levels, known as Optimal Daily Allowance (ODA), has been shown to prevent and treat oxidative stress so that it can help prevent chronic disease. If the use of the right composition and amount will produce the optimal level.
Nutrition becomes a complementary medicine so that it helps in the effectiveness of the treatment so that at the same time it can overcome the side effects for the patient. Therefore, nutrition or nutrition is closely related to optimal health and improved quality of life. The results of measuring can be done with the method of anthropometry.
The nutritional needs of pregnant women are a source of food that is needed to contain phosphorus, lime, iron, protein, iodine, and vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, and vitamin B6 which should be of concern and consumption by pregnant women everyday during their pregnancy so that the development, growth, and health of the mother and fetus are healthy and optimal.
The goals of nutrition for pregnant women are:
- Meet the needs of mother and baby in the womb
- Helping the process of fetal growth and development
- Reducing complications and risks (post partum hemorrhage)
- Prevent the occurrence of low birth weight (LBW) and very low birth weight in the fetus
- Avoid and prevent infection during childbirth
- As a source of energy for mother and fetus.
Nutritional Benefits For Pregnant Women
As we have seen, nutrition for pregnant women is clearly different. Nutrition of pregnant women is also different for each gestational age, but most of us assume that the nutritional needs of pregnant women are always the same at all gestational ages.
Not only that, the food consumption of pregnant women must also be adjusted to the nutritional intake needed by the prospective baby who is still in the womb. Mothers who are pregnant have special nutritional needs because they are related to the nutrients needed for the growth and development of the fetus that is still in the womb. During the second trimester of pregnancy, fetal growth is growing rapidly, therefore pregnant women need food sources that provide optimal nutrition for pregnancy.
For pregnant women, the important intake to consume is vitamins and minerals because they are needed for the health of the baby’s fetus. In addition, protein is also one of the most needed nutrients for pregnant women. Protein has a very big role in producing blood cells. Apart from protein, carbohydrates are one of the nutrients that are needed by pregnant women for their daily energy needs.
Apart from protein, fat is also a nutrient needed by pregnant women, fat serves as an energy reserve for the body. When a woman is pregnant, she will need a lot of energy. Fat helps provide spare energy to reduce fatigue.
Some vitamins are also very necessary for women who are pregnant. Vitamin B6 can form antibodies, red blood cells and neurotransmitters. Vitamin A provides benefits for skin maintenance and bone growth, although its use is not excessive because it will result in disruption of the embryo. Vitamin C and Vitamin D are also nutrition for pregnant women. Vitamin C helps facilitate the absorption of iron while Vitamin D is useful for bone formation because it helps the process of absorption of calcium, Vitamin E is very good for female fertility, skin moisture and uterine strength, and vitamin K plays an important role in the process of blood clotting and bone health.
Pregnant women also really need calcium because calcium is very important to support the baby’s growth. Iron is also an important element for the nutrition of pregnant women. Iron is essential in the production of red blood cells and for preventing anemia. According to several studies conducted by experts, folic acid is needed by pregnant women because if during pregnancy the mother is deficient in folic acid, it will increase the risk of having a miscarriage and even damage to the fetus. (Other articles: A sign about to give birth)
Nutrition needed by pregnant women
Food as a source of nutrition for pregnant women is food that contains:
- Protein: Milk, cheese, meat, whole grains, nuts.
- Lime: All foods made from milk
- Phosphorus: Milk, cheese, nuts and meat
- Iron: Liver, meat, eggs, whole rice, vegetables, nuts, fruit
- Lodium: Iodine salt
- Vitamins: Vitamin B6, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K.
Foods to avoid
The following are foods contaminated with microorganisms that pregnant women should avoid:
- Listeria (causes miscarriage or blood poisoning).
- E. Coli bacteria (Can damage the intestines and kidneys).
- Salmonella and Toxoplasma (Should not consume eggs and meat in raw form).
Due to lack of nutrition
1. For pregnant women:
- Post partum hemorrhage.
- Body weight does not gain normally.
- Post partum infection.
2. For the fetus:
- Causes neonatal death.
- Have a congenital disability (blindness).
- Experiencing LBW (low birth weight).
- Experiencing BBLRSR (very low birth weight).
- Experiencing KEP (lack of protein energy).
- Cause Premature Babies.
Pregnancy is an event that is almost always eagerly awaited. Even now, mothers generally understand how mothers should better maintain their body condition for the smooth running of pregnancy and fetal development in the womb. If previously the mother ate only for herself, now she must fulfill her nutritional needs for the fetus as well. In a normal healthy pregnancy, the mother will gain weight during pregnancy. Optimal weight gain will have an impact on both pregnancy and childbirth in the future.
Foods with balanced nutrition can be obtained from carbohydrates and fats as a source of energy, protein as a building block, and vitamins and minerals as regulatory substances. As a source of energy that produces calories, carbohydrates can be obtained from tubers. While protein as a source of building blocks can be obtained from meat, fish, eggs, nuts, and as a regulatory agent, vitamins and minerals can be obtained from fruits and vegetables.