Test-tube baby – Having children is the dream of every couple, both for newly married couples or couples who want to increase their children. Some couples get pregnant immediately after marriage. However, there are also couples who have difficulty having children even though they have been married for a long time. Women who do not get pregnant can be caused because they have fertility problems.
Even so, you and your partner should not be discouraged because there is still a chance for you and your partner to get a baby. There are many methods you can take to get pregnant and have children, one of which is the IVF method. You may have heard what IVF is and wondered how to do IVF? Now, to get to know more about IVF, you can refer to the discussion below.
Definition of IVF
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a procedure to help the process pregnancy for couples who have problems with fertility. Usually the IVF procedure is carried out when the fertility problems experienced cannot be resolved. So that to get to the heart this procedure is carried out.
The IVF program has several procedures that must be performed, in contrast to normal pregnancies where fertilization is carried out in the body. In vitro fertilization is done by combining sperm and eggs outside the body. Then it will be transferred into the woman’s womb when the egg has been fertilized and is ready.
Series of IVF Program Procedures
IVF program is not done just like that. This program is carried out by performing a series of procedures such as the following:
Knowing the Menstrual Cycle
Before doing IVF, women must know in advance their menstrual cycle. Before doing this program, you will be advised to take contraceptive pills. It is known that the use of contraceptive pills can help increase the success of IVF and reduce the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and ovarian cysts. However, usually not all doctors will recommend this procedure.
If you have ovulated or a mature egg has been released from the uterus, the doctor will give you a drug, which is usually an injection. This drug administration will allow the doctor to control the ovulation cycle when the IVF program is started.
Start of the IVF Program
The IVF program will start on the first day of your menstruation. The second day of menstruation, the doctor may order blood tests, as well as an ultrasound.
When a blood test is done, the doctor will look at the levels of estrogen, especially estradiol. This test is performed to confirm that the ovaries are sleeping.
Meanwhile, transvaginal ultrasound is performed to determine the size of the ovaries. With this ultrasound, you can also find ovarian cysts if you have them. If there is a cyst, the doctor will treat the cyst first before continuing the program.
Fertility drug injections will be made in the body to stimulate the ovaries. The number and duration of injections are usually in accordance with your medication regime. This stimulation is carried out in order to increase the number of eggs produced by the ovaries. If more and more eggs are taken and fertilized, the chance for you to get pregnant will be even greater.
During this procedure, the doctor will monitor the growth and development of the follicles. The trick is with blood tests and ultrasound every few days. Blood tests were performed to determine the level of estradiol. Ultrasound monitoring of the development of eggs in the ovaries.
Monitoring is important in order to determine the number of drug doses. If the follicles are large, you may need to be monitored every day.
Maturation of Oocytes / Eggs in Ovaries
Before the eggs are taken, they must be able to complete their growth and development. An injection of hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is needed to stimulate oocyte maturation. This injection will usually be given when 4 or more follicles are about 18 to 20 mm in size, and the estradiol level is over 2000 pg / ml.
The hormone injection is done once at the right time. The reason is, if it is done too early, the eggs may not be ripe enough. Meanwhile, if it is too long, the eggs may become too old.
The eggs will be collected in about 34 to 36 hours if you have received the hCG injection. In every one follicle of your ovary there will be one oocyte. Usually the number of follicles that are taken will vary from each individual. The oocyte is then taken for fertilization.
Once the procedure is complete you will be advised to rest. Immediately report to the doctor if you experience some signs of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome such as nausea, diarrhea, bloating, abdominal discomfort and weight gain.
Fertilization of Eggs
The eggs that have been taken will be chosen which is the best. When you do the egg retrieval procedure, your husband may be asked to give you semen that contains sperm. The sperm will be separated and the best seeds are selected. The egg will be placed with about 10,000 sperm in a special place. It is expected that fertilization will occur within 12 to 24 hours.
Transfer of Eggs In The Womb
If the egg has been fertilized successfully, before being transferred to the uterus it will usually be stored for 3 to 5 days in a special place. Transfer of the fertilized egg (embryo) to the uterus is usually done on the 5th day after fertilization, when the embryo is in the blastocyst phase. In this phase, the embryo is able to attach to the uterus properly.
It will take 2 weeks to find out if you are successful. You can carry out activities like everyday and it’s best to avoid stress. After 2 weeks you can do a pregnancy test.
Who Can Do the IVF Program?
The IVF program itself is actually not the main solution to overcome fertility problems. IVF program will be recommended if other methods have been used but have not worked. The IVF program will be the right solution if you and your partner experience problems such as the following:
A person suffering from cancer needs treatment that will interfere with fertility. So that if they want to have children, they can run IVF programs to keep the eggs so they can be used.
For couples who do not want to pass on genetic disorders in their offspring, they can undergo a process of diagnosis of PGD (pre-implantation genetics). This technique will improve the chances of a successful pregnancy, as well as the birth of a normal baby by selecting only healthy embryos, which will then be implanted in the uterus for implantation.
Low Sperm Quality
Fertilization will be difficult if the male sperm is of low quality. Sperm that have abnormalities in the shape, size and concentration of sperm below average will make it difficult to get offspring. IVF program can be a solution if this problem cannot be solved.
Endometriosis is a disease caused by the growth of the uterine lining outside the uterus, so that the function of the fallopian tubes, uterus and ovaries is affected. A person suffering from this disease will usually find it difficult to get pregnant and IVF can be a solution.
Normally before the age of 40 years, women who lose the function of the ovaries will not be able to produce enough estrogen. If a woman wants a pregnancy, IVF program can be a consideration.
Unknown Causes of Fertility Problems
Infertility problems sometimes cannot be determined. IVF program can be the right solution for couples who have this problem.
The IVF program is very useful for women who experience problems with the fallopian tubes. The reason is, the IVF procedure will not involve the fallopian tube.
Women whose ovulation cycles are irregular can also get pregnant with IVF.
For men who experience problems with sperm count, IVF program will also be supported by ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection). This injection requires only one healthy sperm to fertilize an egg.
Side Effects and Risks of IVF
After you finish running the program baby tube, you can go back to your daily routine. However, the ovaries may still experience swelling. It is better to avoid doing strenuous activities that will cause pain or discomfort. Usually the common side effects are:
- Tender breasts due to high estrogen levels
- Have mild cramps
- Taste so light
- Experiencing constipation
Some of the side effects require a doctor’s attention, including:
- Pain in the pelvis
- There was heavy vaginal bleeding
- Have a high fever
- The presence of blood in the urine
The side effects associated with using fertility drugs at the start of the IVF program include flatulence, abdominal pain, headaches, mood swings and so on. Some women even experience severe side effects such as shortness of breath, fainting, nausea, vomiting, rapid weight gain and reduced urinary frequency.
IVF program will increase the risk of ovarian overstimulation syndrome, as well as multiple pregnancies. The risk of multiple pregnancies is related to the number of embryos that are inserted into the uterus, especially if you are over 35 years of age. Besides having a high risk for your health, multiple pregnancies are also a risk to the fetus you are carrying. Babies conceived through IVF have a high chance of experiencing birth defects.
In addition, there are several other risks of IVF such as:
- Multiple pregnancy, when more than one embryo is implanted into the uterus
- Risk of miscarriage
- Pregnancy outside the uterus or ectopic
- Stress, because the IVF program will drain emotions, energy and finances.
Factors That Determine the Success of IVF
The success of the IVF procedure, several factors also determine it. The success of IVF program, the optimal age for women is around 23 to 39 years, the highest percentage is under 35 years of age.
The success rate of pregnancy from IVF depends on several other factors such as mother’s age, reproduction, lifestyle and causes of infertility. To run an IVF program in order to get a pregnancy as expected, it is necessary to pay attention to the medical factors of the partner. Not only that, financial readiness is also important, because the cost of IVF is relatively expensive.
The IVF program is one of the effective pregnancy programs as a solution to fertility problems for getting a baby. You can consult your doctor to find out what IVF information you need. This is the information about in vitro fertilization (IVF) that we can convey. Hope it is useful.
This article is reviewed by Midwife Pevi Revina sTR. Keb