Children will experience a period called the golden age of children at an early age where at that time the child will be very sensitive and sensitive to various stimuli and external influences. The rate of development and growth of children affects the golden age of each child. During the golden age, children will experience a very drastic level of development, starting from thinking development, emotional development, motor development, physical development and social development. This developmental spike occurs when the child is 0-8 years old, and this developmental spike will not occur again in the next period. During child development, especially during early development, parents must really make it a special concern, because this will certainly greatly affect the child’s life in the future. To support this, here are some things that parents should pay attention to regarding their child’s development. Also read: Baby Development
Children’s cognitive development is divided into several stages:
- Sensorimotor stageAt this stage, the child’s ability is only in reflex movements, begins to develop initial habits, reproduces various events that he finds interesting, begins to use various things or equipment to achieve his goals, carries out various experiments and the child has started to find new ways. The sensorimotor stage occurs at the age of 0-2 years.
- Pre-operational stage, at this stage the child begins to receive a variety of stimuli that are still limited. The child’s language skills begin to develop, even though their mindset is still statistical and is still unable to think abstractly, perceptions of time and place are still limited. The pre-operational stage develops when the child is 2-7 years old.
- Operational concrete stage, at this stage the child can run operations and start thinking rationally. In this stage, tasks such as arranging, folding, separating, merging, rowing and dividing can be done by the child. The operational concrete stage takes place at the age of 7-11 years.
- Formal Operational Stage, at this stage the child has started to move as a teenager. At this stage, the child has started to think hypothetically, that is, the child has used the relevant hypothesis to solve various problems. It is able to accommodate or think about things that use abstract principles, so that children are able to accept abstract lessons such as mathematics, religion and others.
Physical Development of Children
Regarding the physical development of children, it can be seen from the children’s motorbike development. This child’s motor development is further divided into fine motor development and gross motor development. For more details, please read at: Children’s Motor Development
Early childhood language development is divided into several stages, namely:
- Prelingual period, the child is 0-1 years old, the main characteristic is that the child babbles to be able to communicate with parents, the child is still passive when receiving external stimuli but the child will receive a different response. Example: a baby will smile at people he knows and cry at people he does not know and is afraid of.
- Lingual Period, between 1-2.5 years of age, in this stage the child is able to make a sentence, one or two words in conversation with other people.
- Differentiation Period, the child is 2.5 – 5 years old, the child already has language skills in accordance with good and correct grammar rules. The vocabulary is well developed in terms of quantity and quality.
The socio-emotional development of children is divided into several stages, namely:
- Trust versus suspicious stage (trust vs mistrust), the child is 0-2 years old, in this stage the child will grow his confidence if he gets a pleasant experience, but will grow suspicious if the child has an unpleasant experience.
- Independent versus Doubtful Stage (Autonomy vs Shame), the child is 2-3 years old, feelings of independence begin to appear when the child has begun to master all his repentance members, doubt and shame will appear at this stage when the environment does not give him a trust.
- The initiative versus guilt stage (initiative versus guilt), children 4-5 years old. At this time, children are separated from their parents, children are able to move freely and relate to the environment. This condition can lead to initiative in the child, but if the child still cannot be separated from the ties of his parents and cannot interact with the environment, guilt will arise in the child.