So far, people may only recognize two types of diabetes, namely type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, it seems that there is one more type of this disease that needs to be considered carefully. Diabetes this is diabetes that attacks pregnant women, namely gestational diabetes mellitus.
This type of diabetes is a fatal disease condition because it can affect the development and growth of the fetus in the womb. Likewise with the health of pregnant women at stake. For this reason, it is necessary to provide good management of pregnant women who suffer from gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. This is certainly important to do so that unwanted complications do not occur.
Gestational diabetes mellitus is usually defined as impaired glucose tolerance at various levels that are recognized for the first time during pregnancy. Usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, glucose levels in the body of pregnant women will decrease between 55 and 65 percent. Where this is a response to glucose transport from pregnant mother to the fetus it is carrying.
To put it simply, gestational diabetes is a condition characterized by a persistently high increase in blood sugar during pregnancy. This condition can occur in women who do not even have a previous history of diabetes. Well, below we see why diabetes can occur in pregnant women.
Diabetes in Pregnant Women
Generally, in normal people, blood sugar levels can be regulated by an enzyme called insulin, which allows glucose in the bloodstream to enter the cells. However, during pregnancy, a woman’s body produces more hormones, such as the hormones progesterone and estrogen. Where this condition causes the body to become resistant to the performance of insluin.
For this reason, glucose in the blood can no longer enter the cells and keeps the amount or size in the blood high. Even when pregnant women are not good at maintaining their food intake, the glucose levels in the blood will continue to increase. As a result, this condition will cause more glucose to flow to the fetus to provide the nutrients needed for its growth. Meanwhile, pregnant women usually produce more insulin to regulate and control glucose levels in the blood.
Impact of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (DMG) on the Fetus
The condition of pregnant women who have gestational diabetes will generally disappear after the birth process. However, the important thing that requires greater attention from this problem is the impact of this diabetes will affect both the mother and the fetus in the womb. Well, below are some of the effects or risks that may be given from pregnant women who have gestational diabetes and its effects on the baby.
The first and frightening effect of gestational ketoacidosis that occurs in infants is the risk of congenital birth defects. This risk occurs in 5 to 10 percent of all pregnancies in which gestational diabetes is a major factor. Medical research has shown that the increased risk of congenital birth defects that occur in babies is due more to factors such as high sugar levels during early pregnancy.
The lack of knowledge about pregnancy control can affect the process of cell division during conception. At this stage, all fetal organs will only be able to form in a matter of minutes. If the mother has gestational diabetes, this condition can affect the formation of fetal organs so that this condition can lead to birth defects.
Early Death of Fetus
One of the most serious consequences of diabetes complications and its effects on the fetus is ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis in mothers who suffer from gestational diabetes is an increase in blood acidity caused by high blood sugar levels. The impact is the rate of premature death in the fetus which occurs 50 percent greater than complications of enzyme system function where the fetus will not be able to live in an environment with high acid.
Babies are born with large sizes
Babies born with a large size or better known as macrosomia are abnormal growths due to excessive fat storage in the fetal body. This condition is generally caused by the presence of a high amount of glucose from women who have diabetes during pregnancy. Where the placenta causes the fetal pancreas to produce insulin in large volumes.
The presence of respiratory distress syndrome
High insulin levels can also lead to respiratory distress syndrome. Where this condition can occur because the enzymes needed for surfactant production experience obstacles. Surfactants are the linings that line the lungs and allow babies to breathe when they are born.
This condition can occur in fetuses where the baby’s shoulders are trapped in the pelvis after the head is born. This condition will certainly be dangerous because it makes squeezed and difficult to be born. This condition also makes the child tied to the umbilical cord so that the midwife generally will need to make additional interventions to be able to expedite the birth process and immediately remove the little one with a faster but safer method.
Hyperbubilurubinemia and Hypocalcemia
Hypocalcemia is a condition in which the baby has a small amount of calcium in his blood. This condition is caused by malfunctioning of the parathyroid hormone. Meanwhile hyperbilirubinemia is a jaundice that occurs in infants, which is clinically detected in newborns. When the serum bilirubin level in the baby’s body is greater than 85 umol / L, this condition generally affects a lot of preterm newborns.
Impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (DMG) on mothers
Besides the impact felt by the fetus in the mother’s womb. The same thing can affect the health condition of the mother and the risks to your womb. Gestational diabetes can increase the likelihood of certain complications in pregnant women, such as:
- Pregnant women are at higher risk of giving birth by cesarean section
- High blood pressure during childbirth or preeclampsia
- Risk of early birth
- Great risk of a terrible miscarriage
- After the birth process, you also have a greater risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
These are some of the effects or risks that pregnant women with diabetes may experience. The treatment that can be done from this condition is by starting to adopt a healthy lifestyle. Lifestyle changes will reduce the possibilities that occur. In addition, avoiding obesity by paying attention and adopting a healthy diet will help you avoid the scary risks of diabetes above.
Hopefully what is conveyed can provide deeper information and knowledge so that pregnant women become more aware of the risk of gestational diabetes which will be very