Leptospirosis disease – The rainy season comes, usually the immune system will decline and the body is susceptible to disease. Therefore, during the rainy season it is very important to keep your body fit so you can avoid threatening diseases. One of the diseases in the rainy season to watch out for is leptospirosis. So, so that you are more aware of leptospirosis, you can get to know more about what leptospirosis is, the symptoms it causes, risk factors and preventive measures. To find out, you can immediately see below.
What is leptospirosis
Leptospirosis is a disease that usually appears during the rainy season. Leptospirosis is a disease caused by bacteria leptospira interrogans. These bacteria are spread through the blood or urine of animals that have been infected by these bacteria. Usually this disease is transmitted to humans through contact with soil, water or mud that has been contaminated with the urine of animals that have been infected with the bacteria that cause leptospirosis. This disease cannot be transmitted from person to person or can only be transmitted by infected animals. (Also read: 5 Fruits For The Most Powerful Ulcer Medicine )
Several types of animals that can be infected by leptospirosis are dogs, rats, and livestock such as pigs and cows. Leptospira interrogans bacteria will survive in the kidneys of infected animals.
Symptoms of Leptospirosis
The symptoms of leptospirosis will appear suddenly. Usually the symptoms will appear after 5 to 14 days the body is infected. When the bacteria that cause this disease enter the body, the sufferer will experience several symptoms. Some of the symptoms of leptospirosis include:
- Fever and chills
- Diarrhea, vomiting or both
- A rash appears on the skin
- There is pain in the muscles, especially in the calves and back
- Experiencing jaundice
- The eyes become red and irritated
After symptoms appear, people with leptospirosis will recover within 1 week, when the immune system defeats the infection. It’s just that, usually some sufferers will experience the second stage known as Weil’s disease. This disease is characterized by the appearance of pain in the chest and legs, and swollen hands.
When the body is attacked by the second stage of this disease, the bacteria can invade other organs of the body so that the condition will get worse. This condition is characterized by:
- Distraction on kidney which will lead to kidney failure
- Lung disorders, the symptoms are shortness of breath, coughing, and coughing up blood
- Heart disorders that will trigger heart failure or heart inflammation
- Brain disorder with meningitis symptoms
Causes and Risk Factors for Leptospirosis
Leptospirosis is caused by the leptospira bacteria. Where these bacteria are carried by certain animals. Leptospira bacteria can live for several years in the kidneys of animals that have been infected by these bacteria, then they will be excreted in the urine and will contaminate the soil or water. Leptospira bacteria that have contaminated soil and water will last for several months or years. Meanwhile, animals that have been infected by these bacteria will continue to spread the bacteria even though they don’t show signs or symptoms.
Transmission of this disease to humans when there is direct contact with urine of infected animals or through contaminated soil, water and food. The bacteria will enter the body through open wounds, dry skin and mucous linings such as the nose, mouth and eyes.
Humans will usually develop leptospirosis during floods, where water has been contaminated with leptospira bacteria through contaminated animal urine. These bacteria cannot be spread from human to human. It’s just that, can be transmitted through sexual contact or breast milk (ASI). After the bacteria enter the body, it can spread through the lymph system and the bloodstream to organs in the body.
Leptospirosis usually occurs in tropical and subtropical areas, because the air is humid and hot so that the bacteria will survive longer.
People who have frequent contact with animals and often do activities outside the home have a risk of transmitting this disease. In addition, the risk of this disease can also be found in people who do activities in water such as swimming or doing activities in rivers or lakes that have been contaminated by leptospira bacteria.
How to treat leptospirosis
This leptospirosis infection can be treated with antibiotics to treat and restore body functions that are disrupted by this disease. Antibiotics must be given quickly and depleted. If you stop taking antibiotics when your symptoms improve, it will cause bacteria that haven’t died to re-infect. To reduce symptoms, doctors usually give fever-reducing drugs. If the leptospirosis disease is severe, the sufferer must be hospitalized and observed.
If you experience symptoms as mentioned above, you should immediately go to the doctor so that the disease does not get worse.
Prevention of leptospirosis infection so that it does not get worse
To prevent this disease from getting worse. You can do the following:
When going outside, you must always use clean footwear, especially during the rainy season. The reason is, in the rainy season you will find many puddles. When walking through standing water you have to be more careful because the water could have been contaminated by leptospira bacteria. After you leave the house, you should immediately clean your feet by washing them clean.
Pay attention to drinking water
You have to make sure that the drinking water in your house is really clean and not contaminated by leptospira bacteria. To ensure the cleanliness of drinking water, you can choose bottled drinking water. It could be that the water you drink has been contaminated. So you should first boil the water and store it in a completely closed pitcher.
Treating Open Wounds
Leptospira bacteria will enter the body through open wounds. If you have an open wound on a certain body part you can immediately cover it with a bandage or treat it until it is completely healed.
Prevention of Leptospirosis
To prevent leptospirosis, there are several efforts you can do, including:
- Avoid animals that are susceptible to bacterial infection.
- Avoid contaminated water and keep water clean.
- If necessary you can use a disinfectant.
- You can wear clothes that protect your body from animals that c
- If you have been doing sports in water, you should clean your body until it is completely clean.
- After making contact with animals, wash your hands thoroughly. Also, wash your hands before eating.
- In order to avoid leptospira bacteria, you can vaccinate pets.
This article is reviewed by Midwife Pevi Revina sTR. Keb