What is Meningitis Disease
Meningitis is a symptom of inflammation that affects the protective membrane lining the brain and spinal cord tissue which also causes exudation in the form of pus or serosa caused by bacteria or viruses. This disease can be caused by microorganisms, cancer, fungi, physical injuries, certain drugs consumed by the patient and parasites that spread into the blood and dissolve the brain fluid. This disease is categorized as a serious disease that must be treated immediately, considering the location of this disease is close to the brain and spine, so it can cause damage to movement, mind and even lead to death.
For this reason, patients who are diagnosed with meningitis are advised to carry out further tests, whether the meningitis is caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi. This is necessary for treatment, because each meningitis disease will get therapy according to its cause.
Types of Meningitis Disease
Judging from its type, there are 2 main types of meningitis, namely:
- Viral Meningitis. Viral meningitis usually does not cause serious illness. In severe conditions, this type of meningitis can cause prolonged fever accompanied by convulsions.
- Bacterial Meningitis. This bacterial meningitis disease cannot be taken lightly, because meningitis caused by bacteria is so serious and must receive serious care and treatment to prevent ongoing brain damage and bodily complaints which ultimately risk death.
Causes of Meningitis Disease
Basically, meningitis is caused by exposure to harmless viruses and will recover without specific treatment and treatment. It’s just that meningitis caused by bacteria can cause serious conditions, such as damage to the brain, loss of learning ability, reduced hearing ability and even risk of death. While meningitis caused by fungi, is usually very rare, this type is generally suffered by patients who suffer from immune system damage such as people with AIDS.
Bacteria That Can Cause Meningitis Attack
1.Streptococcus Pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is one of the most common meningitis-causing bacteria that affects infants and children. This type of bacteria can also cause lung infections (pneumonia), ears and parts of the nasal cavity (sinusitis).
2. Neisseria Meningitidis (meningococcus)
According to sources, this type of bacteria is said to be the second most common cause of bacteria after Streptococcus pneumoniae which is the source of the bacteria that causes meningitis. Meningitis caused by bacteria occurs due to an infection that attacks the upper respiratory tract, which then enters the bloodstream and travels to the brain, causing meningitis to arise. Infection due to this bacterial attack is very risky because it can cause death in just 24 to 48 hours.
3. Haemophilus Influenzae (haemophilus)
Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria is a type of bacteria that causes upper respiratory and inner ear infections and sinusitis. Infection caused by this type of bacteria can be treated with a vaccine (Hib vaccine).
4.Listeria Monocytogenes (listeria)
The bacteria that cause meningitis can generally be found in many places, even in foods that have been mixed with these bacteria. Listeria bacteria come from animals that are kept and foods that have the potential to be contaminated by bacteria with this type of listeria are cheese, hot dogs and sandwich meats.
5. Staphylococcus Aureus and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Other bacteria that cause meningitis are Staphylococcus Aureus and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which are one of the causes of tuberculosis.
Signs and Symptoms that Appear in Patients with Meningitis
Common signs and symptoms of meningitis among adolescent and adult patients are neck stiffness and pain, especially when you try to place the chin against the chest. Meanwhile, other symptoms that may be caused are fever, seizures, vomiting, head pain, and loss of consciousness.
Meanwhile, children and adults with a history of medical problems may have different symptoms of meningitis. In babies, the symptoms that they display may be a little difficult to recognize, because generally they can’t show detailed expressions, it’s just that babies may become fussy and don’t want to eat, a rash that when touched will make them cry. Meanwhile, symptoms in children are similar to flu, which can include coughing or difficulty breathing. Meanwhile, the symptoms that will arise in adults or older people with people who have a problematic medical history may just be a headache accompanied by fever.
Is Meningitis Contagious?
The answer is yes. Minigitis is easily transmitted, transmission can be caused by microorganisms, bacteria, viruses and fungi. If it is not healed from an early age, it is feared that it will result in more fatal bodily complaints, including multiple disabilities such as paralysis or mental disorders. The media that can be part of the transmission of this meningitis disease is through mucus and saliva when sneezing, laughing or talking. And other media that is a medium for transmitting meningitis can occur in glasses, plates and utensils used by the sufferer. In addition, towels and tissue can also be a medium of transmission, so you should be careful.
Maningitis Disease Management
When the above symptoms are felt, the patient should get medical attention by a doctor, lumbar function is a very important laboratory test for meningitis. This is also known as a spinal tap. Later the patient will be examined more deeply and a fluid sample will be taken from inside the spine and tested to check whether it contains organisms that cause disease. In addition, doctors will also perform other tests, such as blood tests, CT scans and many more.
Meningitis Disease Prevention
- Maintain and Improve Cleanliness. This transmission of meningitis can be prevented by increasing the level of hygiene among people at risk of infection and among those who may spread the disease. The most important thing is to maintain hand hygiene, because hands are the media most at risk of transmitting viruses and bacteria. For this reason, make it a habit to wash your hands
using anti-germ soap and rinse under running water.
- Avoid Sharing of Equipment. Sharing utensils such as using the same plates, glasses, straws, towels and other utensils with the sufferer will facilitate the spread of meningitis bacteria, so avoid sharing equipment with sufferers to prevent meningitis.
- Cover nose and mouth when sneezing.
- Take antibiotics when you are with someone who has the virus. This is a precaution against how easily the meningitis virus can spread.
Meningitis or inflammation of the lining of the brain is a contagious disease. The germs that cause meningitis can be transmitted from one person to another through coughing and close contact. For that it is very important to go to a doctor immediately if the symptoms of meningitis are felt by you and those closest to you. Because only a doctor can determine whether the cause of your meningitis is suffering. Because every cause of meningitis gets different treatment and therapy. Meningitis caused by bacteria can be deadly if not treated immediately. That is complete knowledge about meningitis or inflammation of the lining of the brain, hopefully this is useful.