The type of hepatitis virus that will be discussed this time is the hepatitis B virus which can attack children. In the process of spreading both vertically and horizontally in children in Indonesia is very high. In fact, Indonesia is classified into the group of countries urged by WHO in implementing hepatitis B prevention. How is the spread of the hepatitis B virus? What are the symptoms experienced by a child with hepatitis B? What are the solutions and prevention that must be taken to avoid the spread of hepatitis B? All will be answered in the article on caution against hepatitis B in children.
Definition of Hepatitis B in children
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. So that Hepatitis B is a disease that can infect the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus. Infections carried out by the hepatitis B virus can cause liver cancer. Even so, the patient does not realize that he has been infected with hepatitis B.
The most common spread of hepatitis B sufferers is from mother to child. The cause can be caused by an unhealthy lifestyle. You should not underestimate the spread of the hepatitis B virus because the hepatitis B virus will be more dangerous than the HIV virus. This is because infection from hepatitis B is 50 to 100 times greater than HIV.
Children who have hepatitis B are more likely to become chronic. This is because hepatitis B virus infection is influenced by the age distribution. In children who have an infection from a mother with hepatitis B while in the womb it will become chronic up to 90-95% if prevention is not done. Meanwhile, the risk of becoming chronic will decrease with age to 5%.
Symptoms of Hepatitis B in children
Hepatitis sufferers can be classified into acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis B. The definition of acute hepatitis B is someone who is infected with the hepatitis B virus and will disappear by itself, recover and will not be re-infected even the patient cannot transmit hepatitis B to other people. Meanwhile, chronic sufferers, namely when the infection experienced by the patient exceeds 6 months. This chronic infection mostly occurs in children (aged 0-1 years) which causes liver damage, liver malfunction and can lead to liver cancer as an adult.
Hepatitis B sufferers without any special symptoms even don’t realize they have been infected with the hepatitis B virus. Symptoms experienced by sufferers can come and go and some of the symptoms experienced by hepatitis B sufferers such as pain and pain in the joints. Even sufferers to nausea and vomiting. Even the symptoms experienced by hepatitis B sufferers even to loss of appetite, fatigue, irritability to depression.
One way to find out hepatitis B is to do a blood test. A special blood test is carried out to find out hepatitis B virus infection. The first time a special blood test will be carried out whether you have hepatitis B and then an additional test to determine liver damage in the patient. Hepatitis B testing should be done by children if they are born into a family infected with hepatitis, liver cancer or liver disease.
Causes of Hepatitis B in children
The cause of Hepatitis B is the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which can cause liver inflammation and even liver cancer. In addition to the hepatitis B virus, the cause of hepatitis can be due to drug poisoning and exposure to chemicals such as chlorpromazine, chloroform, arsenic, carbon tetrachloride, arsenic, phosphorus and other substances. These chemicals can also be swallowed, absorbed or inhaled. Too many chemicals enter the body that can damage the liver. Meanwhile, the cause of hepatitis B in children is due to perinatal transmission (vertical transmission), namely maternal neonatal transmission where hepatitis B virus is transmitted in the womb, during childbirth and postpartum.
Mothers who are infected with the hepatitis B virus in the third trimester of pregnancy have a greater risk of contracting the baby. Infants who contract the hepatitis B virus have a poor prognosis. In general, babies infected with the hepatitis B virus will have a normal body and grow without symptoms. If it is suffered by girls, it is very likely that the hepatitis B virus will spread and be passed on to their offspring. It will even cause horizontal transmission to the husband. Thus the family infected with the hepatitis B virus will increase.
In addition, hepatitis B can be transmitted through closed wounds or cuts. Sexual intercourse with hepatitis B sufferers, using the same syringe as hepatitis B sufferers, blood transfusions tainted with the hepatitis B virus.
Prevention of Hepatitis in Children
With vaccination, it can protect children from hepatitis B virus infection. Immunization is carried out 3-4 doses according to the routine immunization schedule. If the hepatitis vaccine is given in full, about 95% of the antibodies in children can protect against the hapatitis B virus.
Prevention for children born to mothers with hepatitis B, it is recommended that the first hepatitis B vaccine be given (maximum 24 hours after birth) followed by giving the second and third vaccines according to schedule.
Meanwhile, people with hepatitis A continue to provide breast milk to children because breast milk can improve the child’s body system. Although the hepatitis B virus is present in small amounts in breast milk, research conducted in Taiwan states that breast milk is not proven to increase hepatitis B transmission.
Hepatitis treatment in children
Hepatitis B virus infection consists of immunotolerance, immune clearance, inactive carriers and reactivity. Infants already infected with hepatitis B have high serum DNA levels without active manifestations. In the acute stage, it is done with absolute rest, namely treatment in accordance with the patient’s medical condition. In addition, treatment is carried out using drugs. Anti-viral drugs given according to a doctor’s prescription. Immediately do a special blood test if a family is found to have a high risk of hepatitis B.
Watch out for hepatitis B in children
Prevention can be done by conducting examinations from pregnant women to postpartum, if you have a high risk of hepatitis B in children, vaccinations can be carried out at birth to provide immunity. The spread of hepatitis B can occur vertically and horizontally so it is very important to do special blood tests if one of the family members has hepatitis B.